Symbol 
Symbol Name 
Meaning / definition 
Example 
= 
equals sign 
equality 
5 = 2+3 
≠ 
not equal sign 
inequality 
5 ≠ 4 
> 
strict inequality 
greater than 
5 > 4 
< 
strict inequality 
less than 
4 < 5 
≥ 
inequality 
greater than or equal to 
5 ≥ 4 
≤ 
inequality 
less than or equal to 
4 ≤ 5 
( ) 
parentheses 
calculate expression inside first 
2 × (3+5) = 16 
[ ] 
brackets 
calculate expression inside first 
[(1+2)*(1+5)] = 18 
+ 
plus sign 
addition 
1 + 1 = 2 
− 
minus sign 
subtraction 
2 − 1 = 1 
± 
plus  minus 
both plus and minus operations 
3 ± 5 = 8 and 2 
∓ 
minus  plus 
both minus and plus operations 
3 ∓ 5 = 2 and 8

* 
asterisk 
multiplication 
2 * 3 = 6 
× 
times sign 
multiplication 
2 × 3 = 6 
∙ 
multiplication dot 
multiplication 
2 ∙ 3 = 6 
÷ 
division sign / obelus 
division 
6 ÷ 2 = 3 
/ 
division slash 
division 
6 / 2 = 3 
 
horizontal line 
division / fraction 

mod 
modulo 
remainder calculation 
7 mod 2 = 1 
. 
period 
decimal point, decimal separator 
2.56 = 2+56/100 
a^{b} 
power 
exponent 
2^{3}= 8 
a^b 
caret 
exponent 
2 ^ 3^{ }= 8 
√a 
square root 
√a
 √a = a 
√9
= ±3 
^{
3}√a 
cube root 
^{
3}√a
 ^{
3}√a  ^{
3}√a =
a 
^{
3}√8 = 2 
^{
4}√a 
fourth root 
^{
4}√ a<
 ^{
4}√ a  ^{
4}√ a  ^{
4}√ a =
a 
^{
4}√ 16 =
±32 
^{n}√ a< 
nth root (radical) 

for n=3, ^{n}√ 8 = 2 
% 
percent 
1% = 1/100 
10% × 30 = 3 
‰ 
permille 
1‰ = 1/1000 = 0.1% 
10‰ × 30 = 0.3 
ppm 
permillion 
1ppm = 1/1000000 
10ppm × 30 = 0.0003 
ppb 
perbillion 
1ppb = 1/1000000000 
10ppb × 30 = 3×10^{7} 
ppt 
pertrillion 
1ppt = 10^{12} 
10ppt × 30 = 3×10^{10} 